Such grottoes on the lake are formed every year. Their depth is up to ten meters, and the length of icicles is up to three meters.
The ice of the deepest lake on Earth (1642 meters) is considered the most beautiful on the planet. Its thickness reaches two meters. The bottom is visible to great depth. This place is also called the largest ice rink in the world.
Baikal stretches from the north-east to the south-west and is located on the border of the Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia. The lake is of tectonic origin and is located in an inert rift depression similar in structure to the Dead Sea basin. On all sides - hills and mountain ranges. The shape of the lake resembles a huge crescent moon. The east coast has a flat ridge. The western coast is more steep and steep.
Features of the lake
The lake is located in a seismological zone, in its vicinity there are several hundred earthquakes a year. Most of the intensity is 1-2 points on the MSK-64 scale. The predominant part of tremors can be determined only with highly sensitive equipment. The transformation of Baikal continues to this day. The Baikal winds give pronounced features to the local climate. They often blow up a storm on the lake and have memorable names: barguzin, sarma, verkhovik and kultuk. The mass of water affects the atmosphere of the coastal area. Spring here comes 10-15 days later than in neighboring areas. Autumn lasts a long time. Summers are usually cool and winters are not very frosty. Two large lakes and many streams create the main stream that flows into Baikal. The Selenga River, flowing from Mongolia, provides most of the tributary from the southeast side. The second large tributary is from the eastern bank, from the Barguzin River. Angara is the only river flowing from Lake Baikal. The water contains a minimum amount of mineral salts and is abundantly oxygenated to the very bottom. In winter and spring, it is blue and becomes the most transparent. In summer and autumn, it acquires a blue-green hue and is warmed up by the sun as much as possible. Many plants and animals are formed in warm water, so its transparency decreases to 8–10 m. In winter, the surface of the lake is covered with a layer of ice, dotted with multiple multi-kilometer cracks. The explosions occur with a high-pitched crash, similar to gunfire or thunderclaps. They divide the ice surface into separate fields. Cracks help fish not to die due to lack of oxygen under the ice. The sun's rays penetrate through the transparent ice. This promotes the development of oxygen-producing planktonic algae. Baikal freezes almost completely, not counting the area near the headwaters of the Angara.
Baikal as an ecosystem
More than 3500 species of animals and plants live in water and on land. Numerous studies often reveal new species, and the list of inhabitants continues to grow. About 80% of the fauna are endemic, found exclusively in Lake Baikal and nowhere else on earth. Baikal has a large amount of valuable fish: sturgeon, burbot, pike, grayling, taimen, whitefish, omul and others. 80% of the lake zooplankton biomass is Epishura crustacean, which is endemic. It passes through and filters water. The golomyanka viviparous fish inhabiting the bottom, looks unusual and contains more than 30% fat. Biologists are amazed at its constant movement from the depths to shallow water. Freshwater sponges grow at the bottom. According to the stories of local residents, until the XII-XIII centuries the Baikal region was inhabited by the Mongol-speaking people of the Bargut. Then, Buryats began to actively settle on the western coast of the lake and in Transbaikalia. The Cossack Kurbat Ivanov became the Russian discoverer of Baikal. The first Russian-speaking settlements appeared in the late 17th - early 18th centuries.
Mysteries of Lake Baikal
The crystal waters of Lake Baikal are full of mysteries. Often, legends and stories about the lake maneuver on the verge of mysticism and real stories. Researchers have found many meteorite debris and inexplicable linear locations of pitfalls at the bottom of Lake Baikal. Some believe that the waters of the lake contain Pandora's casket and the magic crystal Kali-My. Others claim that Kolchak's gold reserves and Genghis Khan's gold reserves are hidden here. There are witnesses who claim that a UFO trail passes over the lake. The ice cover hides many secrets, forcing scientists to make conjectural conclusions. Specialists of the Baikal Limnological Station have found unique forms of ice cover, inherent exclusively for Baikal. Among them: "sokuy", "kolobovnik", "osenets". Ice hills are similar in shape to tents and have an opening on the back of the shore. Dark rings were found on satellite imagery. Scientists believe that they are formed due to the rise of deep waters and an increase in the temperature of the water surface. Scientific disputes about the origin of Baikal are still ongoing. According to one version put forward by the doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences A.V. Tatarinov in 2009, after the second stage of the "Mirov" expedition, the lake is considered young. Scientists have studied the activity of mud volcanoes on the bottom surface. After that, an assumption was made: the age of the deep-water part is 150 thousand years, and the modern coastline is only 8 thousand years. The oldest lake on earth does not show any signs of aging, like other similar bodies of water. According to the results of the latest research, some experts are inclined to conclude that Baikal may become a new ocean.
Recreation and tourism on Baikal
A favorable time to relax on Lake Baikal is from mid-July to mid-August. At other times, it becomes cold on the coastal area, and the conditions are more suitable for fans of extreme recreation. But even in summer, sometimes a cyclone comes with a cold wind, sharp temperature changes day and night. An important condition for a safe rest is a detailed study of the travel route. The most visited holiday destinations are the Circum-Baikal Railway, Sandy Bay, Listvyanka village, the Maloye Sea coast, Sandy Bay, the western coast of Olkhon, the coast near the city of Severobaikalsk. Other places that can be reached by SUV are also popular.
Sourse of information: РИА Новости , Культур.РФ