"Elbrus is one of the best places in Russia for contemplating and shooting sunrises," says Nikolai Sapronov ,the author of the photo.
He took this photo in November from an altitude of about 4200 meters overlooking Cheget with the well-known "black" ski slopes. The peaks of Georgia open behind it.
The two-headed Mount Elbrus, located on the very border of the republics of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, just north of the Main Caucasian Range, is the highest point in Russia, and is rightfully considered one of the seven wonders of our country. The mountain is a cone of an extinct volcano that last erupted at the beginning of our era. The height of the western peak of Elbrus is 5642 meters, the eastern one is 5621 meters, the peaks are separated by a deep saddle (5325 meters). According to legend, it was here that the search for the golden fleece led the Argonauts and here the titan Prometheus was chained for the fact that he dared to bring fire to people.
The mountain, formed about a million years ago, is composed of alternating layers of lava, ash and tuff. The slopes of Elbrus are mostly gentle, but starting from an altitude of 4000 meters the average slope angle reaches 35 degrees, and the peaks are covered with a dense cap of perennial snow - firn and eternal ice. Several dozen glaciers with a total area of 134 square meters descend from them in all directions. km. The most famous are Big and Small Azau, Irik, Terskol. In the powerful glaciers of Elbrus, the rivers Kukurtlyu, Ullu-Khurzuk, Ullu-Kam originate, which, merging, form the Kuban, the largest river in the North Caucasus. Kuban can be called the daughter of Elbrus. The legendary mountain has always attracted people with its mysterious beauty. The northern and western slopes are strewn with sheer rocky areas up to 700 meters high. The eastern and southern ones are more gentle and even. The sparkling glaciers of the southern side of the Elbrus region have been chosen by skiers and climbers since Soviet times. The longest mountain routes: Azau - Staryy krugozor - 2.5 km, Stary krugozor - Mir - 2 km. The season in the Elbrus region lasts from December to March. Up to an altitude of 4000 meters, the slopes of Elbrus are relatively flat, but higher they become steep. The Adyl-Su, Adyr-Su and Shkheldy gorges are especially popular with climbers from Russia and the former Soviet republics.
Conquest of Elbrus
The history of the conquest of Elbrus is almost 200 years old. The first to determine its height in 1813 was the Russian academician Vikenty Vishnevsky. And the first recorded ascent of Elbrus, the eastern peak, was made in 1829 under the leadership of the hero of the war with Napoleon and the conqueror of the Caucasus, General Georgy Emmanuel. The auxiliary service of the expedition consisted of 650 soldiers and 350 line Cossacks, as well as local guides. The expedition included the geophysicist and founder of the Main Physical Observatory in St. Petersburg, Academician Adolf Kupfer, physicist Emiliy Lenz, founder of the Russian Entomological Society, zoologist Eduard Menetrie, botanist Karl Meyer, who later became director of the Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, artist-architect Joseph Bernardazzi, and Hungarian scientist Besse. Kupfer, Lenz, Meyer, Menetrie, Bernardazzi, 20 Cossacks and guides participated directly in the ascent. However, the lack of experience and the poor quality of climbing equipment forced most of the participants to turn back. According to some sources, the Karachai guide Kilar Khachirov was the first to climb the eastern summit at about 11 am, according to others, it was a Kabardian guide. From the memoirs of Adolf Kupfer: “Only on the next day - July 23 - at noon the Hungarian traveler de Besse noticed through a telescope on the sparkling covers of Elbrus four people who were trying to reach the top of the mountain. Three of them soon disappeared from sight, the fourth rose higher and higher - and suddenly his figure was outlined in relief over the very crown of Elbrus. He was, as it turned out later, the Kabardian Kilyar, a native of Nalchik. "
This event was marked with a rifle salute at the camp.
By order of General Emmanuel, in memory of this outstanding event, the text was carved on the rock: “During the reign of the All-Russian Emperor Nicholas I, the commander of the troops on the Caucasian line, General of the Cavalry Georgy Emmanuel, camped here from 20 to 23 July 1829. With him were: his son Georgy, fourteen years old, academicians sent by the Russian Government: Kupfer, Lenz, Menetrie, Meyer, an official of the mining corps Vansovich, the architect of Mineralnye Vody Joseph Bernardazzi and the Hungarian traveler Ivan de Bess. The academics and Bernardazzi, leaving the camp located eight thousand feet (1143 fathoms) above the sea surface, ascended Elbrus on the twenty-second to fifteen and a half thousand feet (2223 fathoms). The summit of this was reached only by the Kabardian Kilyar. Let this humble stone pass on to posterity the names of those who were the first to pave the way for reaching Elbrus, which was considered impregnable until now. " The data that Emmanuel's expedition conquered Elbrus was not known abroad, therefore, when the Englishman Douglas Freshfield ascended the mountain in 1868, it was regarded as the first ascent. The highest peak of Elbrus (western) was conquered by a team of climbers led by Florence Grove in 1874. Interesting Facts The first geographical map of Elbrus was compiled in 1890 by the Russian military topographer Andrey Pastukhov, who made the first ascent without guides. The rocks at an altitude of 4800 meters now bear his name. It is believed that the first to reach both peaks was the Balkar hunter and shepherd Akhiya Sottayev. He climbed Elbrus nine times, the last one in 1909, when he was 121 years old. In Soviet times, mountaineering became widespread. According to the Society of Proletarian Tourism, from 1829 to 1914, 59 ascents were made to Elbrus, of which 47 were foreigners. And in one 1935 year, Soviet climbers climbed Elbrus 2016 times. Elbrus was in the center of attention during the Great Patriotic War - it became an arena of fierce confrontation. The battles were attended by, among other things, units of the German mountain rifle division "Edelweiss". During the battle for the Caucasus on August 21, 1942, after the occupation of the mountain bases "Krugozor" and "Shelter of Eleven", German Alpine riflemen managed to install German banners on the western summit of Elbrus. But by the middle of the winter of 1942-1943, German troops were driven off the slopes of Elbrus, and on February 13 and 17, 1943, our climbers climbed both peaks, where Soviet flags were hoisted.
Today Elbrus is one of the most demanded Russian ski resorts, a Mecca for snowboarders, freeriders and climbers. The Elbrus region is also interesting for nature lovers. One of the brightest representatives of the animal world of this region is the Caucasian tur, living at altitudes from 1200 to 3400 meters above sea level. Tours at night come to graze in alpine meadows, where bluegrass, foxtail, fescue, buckwheat grow. In winter, tours feed on mosses, lichens, tree bark. In the most inaccessible places, along with tours, there is a chamois. In the lowlands of the mountain forests, you can find roe deer belonging to the deer family. In the Elbrus region, an attempt was made to adapt a herd of Central Asian yaks, but the experiment failed. Wolves also live here, but you should not be afraid of them, there was no case of wolves attacking either skiers or climbers. Although the Elbrus volcano did not remind of itself for almost two thousand years, scientists consider it not extinct, but dormant. In its depths, there are still hot masses that heat the local “hot narzans” - springs saturated with mineral salts and carbon dioxide, the temperature of which reaches +52 and +60 ºС. In the depths of Elbrus, the life of many famous sources of the medical resorts of Kislovodsk, Pyatigorsk and the entire region of the Caucasian Mineral Waters was born.
Information source: РИА Новости , Культура.Рф